Share to Facebook Share to Twitter Bookmark and Share
Meeting Name: City Council Agenda status: Final
Meeting date/time: 6/9/2021 3:30 PM Minutes status: Final  
Meeting location: Council Chambers - 3rd Floor
Please see the meeting guidelines due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Published agenda: Agenda Agenda Published minutes: Minutes Minutes  
Meeting video:  
Attachments:
File #Ver.Agenda #TypeTitleActionResultAction DetailsVideo
CO 21-47 11Communications & Receive/FileMayor's Emergency Executive Orders 21-23, 21-24 and 21-25.Received and Filed  Action details Not available
AO 21-29 32Administrative OrderAmending CDBG projects budget: funding for 879 Rice Street (Smokin' Ninjas) and 1046 Rice Street (Hunter Boys Southern BBQ).Received and Filed  Action details Not available
RES 21-759 13ResolutionApproving the City’s cost of providing Collection of Vacant Building Registration fees billed during October 15, 2020 to February 15, 2021, and setting date of Legislative Hearing for July 6, 2021 and City Council Public Hearing for August 18, 2021 to consider and levy the assessments against individual properties. (File No. VB2110, Assessment No. 218816)AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-761 14ResolutionApproving the City’s cost of providing Securing and/or Emergency Boarding services during March 2021, and setting date of Legislative Hearing for July 6, 2021 and City Council Public Hearing for August 18, 2021 to consider and levy the assessments against individual properties. (File No. J2110B, Assessment No. 218111)AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-762 15ResolutionApproving the City’s cost of providing Demolition service from March 2021 at 535 Forest Street (C.D.B.G. Funds), and setting date of Legislative Hearing for July 6, 2021 and City Council Public Hearing for August 18, 2021 to consider and levy the assessments against individual properties. (File No. J2104C, Assessment No. 212003)AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-763 16ResolutionApproving the City’s cost of providing Collection of Fire Certificate of Occupancy fees billed during February 15 to March 22, 2021, and setting date of Legislative Hearing for July 6, 2021 and City Council Public Hearing for August 18, 2021 to consider and levy the assessments against individual properties. (File No. CRT2110, Assessment No. 218210)AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-764 17ResolutionApproving the City’s cost of providing Excessive Use of Inspection or Abatement services billed during January 20 to February 19, 2021, and setting date of Legislative Hearing for July 6, 2021 and City Council Public Hearing for August 18, 2021 to consider and levy the assessments against individual properties. (File No. J2110E, Assessment No. 218313)AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-765 18ResolutionApproving the City’s cost of providing Graffiti Removal services during February 26 to April 6, 2021, and setting date of Legislative Hearing for July 6, 2021 and City Council Public Hearing for August 18, 2021 to consider and levy the assessments against individual properties. (File No. J2107P, Assessment No. 218409)AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-802 19ResolutionApproving the Collective Bargaining Agreements (January 1, 2021 - December 31, 2022) and Memorandums of Agreement (2021 - 2022) between the City of Saint Paul and AFSCME District Council 5, Clerical - Local 2508 and Technical - Local 1842.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-808 110ResolutionApproving the Mayor’s appointments of Jonathan Deering and Lucas Paschal to the Saint Paul Parks and Recreation Commission.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-809 111ResolutionApproving the Maintenance Labor Agreement (May 1, 2021 - April 30, 2024) between the City of Saint Paul and the International Association of Sheet Metal, Air, Rail and Transportation Workers, Local 10. (laid over from June 9)Laid OverPass Action details Not available
RES 21-821 112ResolutionAuthorizing the Department of Parks and Recreation to apply for grant funds of $2,000 from Twin Cities Public Television to support STEM learning.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-828 113ResolutionApproving a Liquor Off Sale and Cigarette/Tobacco license to Kolobok Inc. d/b/a International Wines & Liquors (License ID #20210000510) for the premises located at 710 Cleveland Avenue.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-838 114ResolutionApproving adverse action against the Cigarette/Tobacco license application submitted by Shoroq LLC d/b/a Twins Market and Meat for the premises located at 1055 Fourth Street East. (To be withdrawn.)Withdrawn  Action details Not available
RES 21-840 115ResolutionApproving the application with conditions, per the Deputy Legislative Hearing Officer, for Randolph Craft LLC, d/b/a A Side Public House (License ID # 20210000331), for Liquor On Sale - 291 or more seats, Liquor On sale - Sunday, Malt Off Sale (Growler) licenses, located at 754 Randolph Avenue.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-849 116ResolutionRequesting adoption of an ordinance; authorizing staff to take certain actions with respect to the EAB Project; and declaring the official intent of the City to reimburse certain original expenditures related to the capital project from the proceeds of tax-exempt bonds to be issued by the Port Authority.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-859 118ResolutionApproving the application with conditions, per the Deputy Legislative Hearing Officer, for Mucci’s Italian LLC (License ID # 20150003362), d/b/a same, to add a Liquor-Outdoor Service Area (Patio) license to the existing Liquor On sale - 100 seats or less, and Liquor On Sale - Sunday licenses, located at 786 Randolph Avenue.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RES 21-858 117ResolutionApproving the appointment of Chris Xiong as the Legislative Aide in Ward 6.AdoptedPass Action details Video Video
RES 21-864 119ResolutionAuthorizing the City to transfer $575,000 of American Rescue Plan funds to a specific account for the RightTrack+ program.AdoptedPass Action details Video Video
RES 21-867 120ResolutionCelebrating the 52nd Anniversary of Stonewall and June 2021 Pride Month.AdoptedPass Action details Video Video
RES 21-870 121ResolutionHonoring Nia Black by declaring June 13th 2021 as Community Gun Violence Awareness Day.AdoptedPass Action details Video Video
Ord 21-17 122OrdinanceGranting the application of Ali Alfureedy to rezone property at 444 Maryland Ave W from B1 local business district to T2 traditional neighborhood and amending Chapter 60 of the Legislative Code pertaining to the zoning map. (Public Hearing held June 2)FailedFail Action details Video Video
Ord 21-18 123OrdinanceGranting the application of Stonewood Investments LLC rezone property at 300 Banfil Street/149-155 Dousman Street Rezone from B2 community business to RM2 medium-density multiple-family residential and amending Chapter 60 of the Legislative Code pertaining to the zoning map. (Public Hearing held June 2)AdoptedPass Action details Video Video
Ord 21-19 124OrdinanceGranting the application of Pillai Builders LLC to rezone property at 385 Topping Street from B1 local business to T2 traditional neighborhood and amending Chapter 60 of the Legislative Code pertaining to the zoning map.Laid Over to Second Reading  Action details Video Video
Ord 21-22 125OrdinancePlacing the classification titled Lead Victim Witness Coordinator in the unclassified service pursuant to Section 12.03.2(H) of the Charter.Laid Over to Second Reading  Action details Video Video
Ord 21-23 126OrdinanceGranting the Port Authority authority to issue general obligation bonds to which the full faith, credit, and resources of the City are pledged pursuant to the provisions hereof and by authority of said Minnesota Statutes, Chapters 469 and 475, as amended.Laid Over to Second Reading  Action details Video Video
RES PH 21-126 127Resolution-Public HearingAuthorizing an increase in the Parks and Recreation Grant Fund Budget in the amount of $1,310,000 to reflect additional CDBG Cares grant funding awarded in 2021 for Family Distance Learning, Expanded Meal Access and Rec Center Covid Reporting Technology.AdoptedPass Action details Video Video
Ord 21-20 128OrdinanceCreating Chapter 233A of the Legislative Code to establish certain rights for hospitality workers who have suffered loss of employment due to the Covid-19 pandemic to return to work with their previous employer.Laid Over to Final AdoptionPass Action details Video Video
Ord 21-21 129OrdinanceRepealing Chapter 193 of the Legislative Code related to Tenant Protections.Laid Over to Public HearingPass Action details Video Video
RLH VBR 21-24 230Resolution LH Vacant Building RegistrationAppeal of Chris Johnson to the Code Compliance Certificate Requirement and Summary Abatement Order at 1764 BUSH AVENUE.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RLH VO 21-20 234Resolution LH Vacate OrderAppeal of Teresa Warnke and Bridgette Smith to a Notice of Condemnation-Unfit for Human Habitation-Order to Vacate at 1834 HOYT AVENUE EAST.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RLH SAO 21-41 235Resolution LH Summary Abatement OrderAppeal of Landon Taylor, OVT Family LLC, to a Summary Abatement Order at 1087 JESSAMINE COURT.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
RLH VO 21-17 236Resolution LH Vacate OrderAppeal of Steven Kraut, Apogee Properties, to a Revocation of Fire Certificate of Occupancy and Order to Vacate at 58 LAWSON AVENUE WEST.Adopted As AmendedPass Action details Not available
RLH SAO 21-48 138Resolution LH Summary Abatement OrderMaking finding on the appealed nuisance abatement ordered for 855 THIRD STREET EAST in Council File RLH SAO 21-38.Adopted As AmendedPass Action details Not available
RLH RR 21-37 231Resolution LH Substantial Abatement OrderOrdering the rehabilitation or razing and removal of the structures at 1253 CLEVELAND AVENUE NORTH within fifteen (15) days after the June 9, 2021, City Council Public Hearing. (Refers back to July 13, 2021 Legislative Hearing)ReferredPass Action details Not available
RLH RR 21-38 232Resolution LH Substantial Abatement OrderOrdering the rehabilitation or razing and removal of the structures at 2062 COMO AVENUE within fifteen (15) days after the June 9, 2021, City Council Public Hearing. (Refers back to July 13, 2021 Legislative Hearing)ReferredPass Action details Not available
RLH RR 21-39 237Resolution LH Substantial Abatement OrderOrdering the rehabilitation or razing and removal of the structures at 2075 SCUDDER STREET within fifteen (15) days after the June 9, 2021, City Council Public Hearing. (Refers back to July 13, 2021 Legislative Hearing)ReferredPass Action details Not available
RLH VBR 21-31 233Resolution LH Vacant Building RegistrationAppeal of Mariah Kraatz-Rimkus, Realty Pros LLC, to a Vacant Building Registration Notice at 1615 DARLENE STREET.AdoptedPass Action details Not available
File #Date NameDistrictOpinionCommentAction
Ord 21-21 6/22/2021 10:38 PMSara  Against
Ord 21-21 6/16/2021 7:56 PMNicolaas VanMeerten Against The St. Paul city council should be working to protect tenants not landlords who are already in a position of power. +1
Ord 21-21 6/15/2021 12:55 AMAndrea Buiser Against Please do not repeal the S.A.F.E. Housing ordinance. Your most marginalized constituents are relying on you all to stand by the legislation created to protect tenants' rights. We are counting on each and every Councilmember to stand up for the population of renters in Saint Paul. +1
Ord 21-21 6/10/2021 5:43 PMAnthony LaRose Against I am against the repeal of SAFE housing! St. Paul is majority renters and repealing this will cause more problems than benefits. +1 -2
Ord 21-21 6/9/2021 7:32 PMRobert Craft Against I am astounded that the City Council would retreat from protecting tenants with the proposed repeal of our Safe Housing Ordinance. The Council had to know the landlords would litigate the matter. Giving up without a fight because of one judge's opinion indicates a both of lack of resolve and a misplaced concern for legal expenses over human rights. Claiming that other protections and resources are available insults the testimony of all those who supported the ordinance because those resources fail tenants time and again. +2 -2
Ord 21-21 6/8/2021 10:11 PMSam Robertson Against Please do not repeal the S.A.F.E. Housing ordinance. I work at a domestic violence shelter in St Paul and this ordinance has allowed many of our residents to access fair housing where they would not have been able to without the ordinance. Revoking the S.A.F.E. Housing ordinance removes an essential protection for many residents of St Paul (housed and looking for housing) and is a colossal step back from housing equity. The ordinance works. We have seen it work successfully. +3 -2
Ord 21-21 6/8/2021 9:38 PMOnnie Brodkorb Against Please do not repeal this ordinance. S.A.F.E. housing is a well-researched and legally backed ordinance that put bare minimum basic protections into place. I work with unhoused people in the city of St Paul and during the short time S.A.F.E housing was in place I saw it work to connect people who are able and willing to pay rent overcome the barriers to housing that exist when property owners have overreaching tenant screenings. Do not believe the rhetoric that this requires property owners to rent to criminals! The ordinance says the look back period for misdemeanors is 3 years and 7(!) years for felonies. People who have been convicted and completed their sentences should not be subject to constant punishment and denial of housing. MN property owners concerned about criminal activity on the property are already protected by MN 504b.171. Not only is St Paul a majority renter city, but the majority of landlords want to do the right thing and to have fair rental standards. +3 -2
Ord 21-21 6/8/2021 9:23 PMJoan Countryman Against Please do not repeal! Our renters need our ***istance. +2 -2
Ord 21-21 6/8/2021 9:13 PMRainbow Health Minnesota Against Rainbow Health Minnesota, based in St. Paul, knows that safe, stable housing is critical to people's health. We would urge the Council to not rush to repeal these provisions, but to take the time to develop a robust legal defense AND a back-up plan for protecting tenants. +2 -1
Ord 21-21 6/8/2021 1:46 PMAndrew Eikum Against The city should protect its renters by not repealing these protections. +1 -2
Ord 21-21 6/7/2021 11:20 PMJoe Nathan Against Having been a renter and then a homeowner, I strongly urge the Council and Mayor to delay action - and to instruct the City Attorney to appeal this Judge's Decision. New Jersey has used many of the ideas in the city's ordinance to balance needs of renters and landlords. Yes, we need to respect property rights. But St Paul should be a city that welcomes rather than discourages renters. +2
Ord 21-21 6/7/2021 10:17 PMJoan Ostrove Against Please do not repeal the SAFE Housing ordinance. We will be abandoning our city’s renters and privileging the interests of corporate landlords. The repeal will disproportionately hurt renters of color and working cl*** families, who deserve to be protected from displacement. Thank you +1 -1
Ord 21-21 6/7/2021 9:28 PMElaine Tarone Against I observedJudge Magnuson’s hearing of the cases for and against the landlords injunction. He clearly hadn’t even read the City’s written case; he plainly said he hadn’t. I urge you not to repeal the tenant protections in the face of such a judge’s opinion. Please fight hard against the landlords’ injunction. Get St Paul’s tenant protections enforced! +5 -1
Ord 21-21 6/7/2021 8:54 PMApril Mootz Against The fact that 5 of St Paul's council members are pushing to repeal a bill that was created to protect tenants from discrimination and exploitation at the hands of landlords is disheartening to say the very least. While our city is experiencing a housing and homelessness crisis no less. Our city is majority renters. I am a renter. Everyone I am in community with are renters as well. Everyone of the council members sponsoring this bill have a responsibility to the community's who gave them their power. By repealing tenant protections they are turning their backs on their own constitutes, as well as thousands of families who rent in St Paul. Keep SAFE housing in St Paul and stop pandering to landlords who are systematically exploiting and discriminating against black, brown, and working cl*** constitutes. +2 -1
Ord 21-21 6/2/2021 8:31 PMJames Wilkinson   SAFE goals are important. I think that City should engage with plaintiffs and try to preserve some aspects of the ordinance now and look to improve and remedy problems in a thoughtful manner. +2
Ord 21-21 6/1/2021 2:43 PMMatt Jarvi Against Please support basic housing justice. Keep the SAFE Act. +3 -4
Ord 21-21 6/1/2021 2:25 PMAdrian Perryman Against +4 -3
Ord 21-21 5/31/2021 5:05 PM  For Repeal. Do not force private landlords to rent to criminals. Instead help private landlords to filter and keep our good law abiding citizens safe, especially in muti- units. +9 -7 2
Ord 21-21 5/31/2021 3:38 PMSalina Amey For Fix this. Basic tenant rights have already been guaranteed by the State of MN and numerous organizations are at the ready to implement those rights. The City of St. Paul overstepped its authority by impeding on property owners right to sell, disabling their ability to remove problem tenants due to the extremely limiting "Just Cause" portion of the ordinance and creating a revolving lease agreement which will hinder proper maintenance and upkeep by responsible property owners of affordable housing who may need to replace carpeting, refinish hard wood floors, renovate a bathroom, etc. at end of lease term, but cannot schedule such work unless the tenant chooses to not renew or relocation fees are paid. To be clear, the revolving lease takes away an owner's right/ability to decide whether or not to renew a lease and gives sole decision to tenant. Lastly, the ordinance punishes small property owners of affordable housing units while big developers remain relatively untouched. +6 -6
Ord 21-21 5/31/2021 1:39 PMRichelle Schenfeld For This ordinance was fraught with problems from the beginning and poorly thought out. I encourage everyone to read the Judge's ruling in it's entirety. I agree with his opinions and am grateful for his wisdom. The ordinance should be repealed. The city does not need another costly and lengthy lawsuit. +5 -3
Ord 21-21 5/31/2021 3:23 AMEric Lein For When creating "Tenant Protections," please listen to, respect, balance & incorporate the viewpoints and rights of ALL affected parties. Note these EXCERPTS FROM JUDGE MAGNUSON'S ORDER of 04/19/2021: The ordinance [Chapter 193] forces Plaintiffs [Landlords] to bear society’s burden related to housing needs. Plaintiffs have shown a probable likelihood of success on the merits of their regulatory takings claim. /// While the ordinance references racial disparities, that concern is addressed by the Fair Housing Act, which prohibits race-based housing discrimination. Plaintiffs have demonstrated a likelihood of success on the merits regarding their substantive due process claim. /// Plaintiffs have established the existence of irreparable harm because continued enforcement of the ordinance is likely to result in ongoing violations of Plaintiffs’ constitutional rights, and “loss of [constitutional] freedoms, for even minimal periods of time, unquestionably constitutes irreparable injury.... +8 -3
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 9:08 PMDanette Lincoln For Basic tenant rights have already been guaranteed by the State of MN and numerous organizations are at the ready to implement those rights. The City of St. Paul overstepped its authority by impeding on property owners right to sell, disabling their ability to remove problem tenants due to the extremely limiting "Just Cause" portion of the ordinance and creating a revolving lease agreement which will hinder proper maintenance and upkeep by responsible property owners of affordable housing who may need to replace carpeting, refinish hard wood floors, renovate a bathroom, etc. at end of lease term, but cannot schedule such work unless the tenant chooses to not renew or relocation fees are paid. To be clear, the revolving lease takes away an owner's right/ability to decide whether or not to renew a lease and gives sole decision to tenant. Lastly, the ordinance punishes small property owners of affordable housing units while big developers remain relatively untouched. +9 -5
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 9:04 PMBarbara Sellers Against Please support basic housing justice. Keep the SAFE Act. +4 -2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 6:03 PMDavid Ackos Against The city must not repeal this ordinance! It is a set of legal protections that has already been reviewed and the city needs to stand behind its renter residents, our neighbors, and its SAFE ordinance. The SAFE ordinance has strong support among my neighbors, renters and homeowners, and we want to see the city defend it in court, not roll it back. We are actively organizing for safety and security for renters and for racial justice, and it's very disappointing to see councilmembers trying to remove a recently p***ed protection for our renter neighbors. Don't walk this law back. Defend it and expand it. Support our neighbors! +3 -3
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 5:59 PMJeffrey Grizzell Against Renters make up a strong majority of St Paul residents and they deserve protections! If we keep the protections, it will help renters to have more stable housing, helping to build a stronger community. Do not pull the rug out from under your constituents whose interests you were elected to serve. +7 -2 2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 5:01 PMIlya Garelik Against This proposal only has the interests of privileged people in mind and is in opposition to the interests of renters who need help. If City Council wants to enact racial justice and the betterment of oppressed people, then this proposal should not be allowed to p***. In addition, working to repeal a recently p***ed policy is anti-democratic and reactionary. +3 -4
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 4:09 PMBahieh Hartshorn Against More than 50% of residents in Saint Paul are renters, and we deserve to be protected. Last year the council made a bold vote in alignment towards a vision of Saint Paul as the most "livable city" and this repeal would be a direct violation of that vision. This is really disappointing, and I hope that council members will stick with the vote you all took last summer that affirmed that renters deserve to be protected. +7 -2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 3:52 PM    This ordinance was p***ed unanimously and it seems disingenuous to now repeal it after a little bit of totally expected push back. Renters in St. Paul deserve these protections AND EVEN MORE. Stand up for what you stood for last year and withdraw this ordinance! +3 -2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 1:10 PMMargaret Johnson Against I have owned a home for 16 years in St. Paul, after being a renter. One of my daughters is a renter. The majority of people in St. Paul are renters. Please keep this very modest legal protection to help check the power balance, supporting basic housing justice. Please keep the code. +7 -2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 12:40 PMRick Hedrick Against I live in an area with rentals and owned homes. Renter occupied units make up a majority of housing units in Saint Paul. The SAFE ordinance can only be seen as a law that promotes human rights against unrestricted property rights. Renters should have more agency in their lives. Please stop this outrageous effort to repeal the law. Instead stand strong with the majority of your voters. +4 -1
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 11:24 AMRob Ramer Against I have owned a home in St. Paul for 25 years.And I have been a landlord and a renter. I was proud of my city for p***ing decent tenant protections. The SAFE ordinance can only be seen as a law that promotes human rights against unrestricted property rights. Please stop this outrageous effort to repeal the law. Instead stand strong with the majority of your voters. This morning I took a walk around Merriam Park. I saw good furniture and belongings out in the rain. How many more evictions are coming if this law is repealed and the worst landlords see that tenants have no friends in the city council., +3 -2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 3:07 AMAlan Richardson Hohn Against The council engaged community organically and had consensus from district council in our when these protections were p***ed. Many residents felt the protections did not go far enough and the promise was that these would be the begining of protections. The city anticipated legal challenges and even wrote specific language into the code regarding the striking of any language which was found unconsitiutional. The effort to remove section 193 in entirety rather than strike portions which are found unconstitutional go against the language written in the section. To claim this is to avoid legal challenge and ***ociated cost to go back to square one and restart talks on the same topic is a waste of finances, disregards previous community input, and does not feel genuine considering the promise that this was the start of reforms when originally adopted. +7 -2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 3:05 AMChris Holbrook For This is the best proposal I've ever seen. Respect private property rights. +14 -9
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 1:05 AMThom Hirschboeck Against A majority of St Paulites are renters. A basic set of legal protections aimed toward more equitable access to housing is not only needed by so many of our neighbors (as I'm sure you all know), it is the necessary foundation for stable communities and a truly livable city. +6 -2
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 1:03 AMBrigitte Temple Against Last year St Paul city council listened to to needs of our majority renter city and decided to stand with renters. The modest tenant protections are necessary to ensure that St Paul can live up to its motto "Most livable city in America". The city council should continue listen to the voices of renters and keep the protections in place. +6 -3
Ord 21-21 5/28/2021 12:51 AMMichelle Hirschboeck Against Tenant protections help to check the power balance, supporting basic housing justice. Please keep the code! +13 -4 3
Ord 21-21 5/27/2021 11:05 PMTram Hoang Against The City already did its legal homework on this issue and anticipated the legal challenges that would come from opposition. These policies are legal and have been implemented in cities across the country. St. Paul is doing nothing new or revolutionary with these tenant protections, and they must be defended in court. Now is not the time to abandon our majority-renter city. Renters, who are more likely to be BIPOC and low-wealth residents, need these protections, especially during this COVID housing crisis. City Council must hold itself accountable to the promises made during community engagement and defend this legally sound and proven public policy in court. +15 -4
Ord 21-21 5/27/2021 10:11 PMBenjamin Werner Against We need strong tenant protections in Saint Paul. They need to stand as they are. +16 -3
Ord 21-21 5/27/2021 10:04 PMJohn Slade Against The council worked hard with community to craft these protections, which are desperately needed particularly as the ending of the eviction moratorium comes closer. They have been upheld in other jurisdictions. This is premature. Please do not repeal these; instead, vigorously defend them. +16 -3